இதில் கொடுமை என்னவென்றால் இவர்களிடம் ஆதாரம் கேட்டால் இராமாயணத்தையும், மகா பாரததையும் துணக்கு இழுப்பார்கள்.இவை இரண்டுக்கும் ஆதாரம் கேட்டால் வேரு ஏதாவது இதிகாசங்களை[இல்லாத காசங்களை] துணைக்கு அழைப்பார்கள்.
இத்தகைய வாதங்களில் இருந்து நான் தெரிந்து கொன்டது ஒன்றே ஒன்றுதான். விவாதங்களினால் இவர்களை பெரும்பாலும் மாற்ற முடியாது, இவர்கள் ஒரு வகையில் மாற விரும்பாதவர்கள் ம்ற்றும் ஒரு முன் முடிவுடனே விவாததி தொடங்குவார்கள். இவர்களுடன் ஆவி போக பேசுவதற்கு பதில் சில சுட்டிகளை[URL] கொடுத்து ஒதுங்கி விடுவேன். அத்தகைய சுட்டிகளை ஓரிடத்தில் தொகுத்தால் என்க்கும், பிற தமிழர்வம் உள்ள நண்பர்களுக்கும் உதவும் இன்பதால் இங்கே பதிகிறேன்
lexical (vocabulary) borrowing, but only a few traits of structural (either
phonological or grammatical) borrowing, from the Indo-Aryan tongues. On the
other hand, Indo-Aryan shows rather large-scale structural borrowing from
Dravidian, but relatively few loanwords.
There is no definite philological and linguistic basis for asserting
unilaterally that the name Dravida also forms the
origin of the word Tamil (Dravida ->
Dramila -> Tamizha or Tamil). Zvelebil cites the forms such as dramila
(in Daṇḍin's Sanskrit work Avanisundarīkathā)
damiḷa (found in Ceylonese chronicle Mahavamsa)
and then goes on to say (ibid. page xxi): "The forms damiḷa/damila
almost certainly provide a connection of dr(a/ā)viḍa " and "... tamiḷ < tamiẓ ...whereby the further development might
have been *tamiẓ > *damiḷ > damiḷa- / damila- and further, with the
intrusive, 'hypercorrect' (or perhaps analogical) -r-, into dr(a/ā)viḍa. The -m-/-v- alternation
is a common enough phenomenon in Dravidian phonology" (Zvelebil 1990:xxi)
Zvelebil in his earlier treatise (Zvelebil 1975: p53) states: "It is obvious
that the Sanskrit dr(a/ā)viḍa, Pali damila, damiḷo and Prakrit d(a/ā)viḍa are all etymologically connected with
tamiẓ" and further remarks "The r in
tamiẓ > dr(a/ā)viḍa is a hypercorrect insertion, cf. an
analogical case of DED 1033 Ta. kamuku, Tu.kangu "areca nut": Skt.
Based on what Krishnamurti states referring to a scholarly paper published in
the International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, the Sanskrit word draviḍa itself is later than damiḷa since the dates for the forms with -r- are
centuries later than the dates for the forms without -r- (damiḷa, dameḍa-, damela- etc.). So it is clear that
it is difficult to maintain Dravida -> Dramila -> Tamizha or
Further, another eminent Dravidian linguist Bhadriraju
Krishnamurti in his book Dravidian Languages (Krishnamurti 2003: p.
2, footnote 2) states: "Joseph (1989: IJDL 18.2:134-42) gives extensive
references to the use of the term draviḍa, dramila first as the name of a
people, then of a country. Sinhala inscriptions of BCE [Before Christian Era]
cite dameḍa-, damela- denoting Tamil merchants.
Early Buddhist and Jaina sources used damiḷa- to refer to a people of south India
(presumably Tamil); damilaraṭṭha- was a southern non-Aryan country;
dramiḷa-, dramiḍa, and draviḍa- were used as variants to designate a
country in the south (Bṛhatsamhita-, Kādambarī,
Daśakumāracarita-, fourth to seventh centuries CE) (1989: 134-8). It
appears that damiḷa- was older than draviḍa- which could be its
family to the present day and have defied all of the attempts to show a
connection with the Indo-European tongues, Mitanni, Basque, Sumerian, or Korean.
The most promising and plausible hypothesis is that of a linguistic relationship
with the Uralic (Hungarian, Finnish) and Altaic (Turkish, Mongol) language
published his Comparative grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian family of
languages, which considerably expanded the Dravidian umbrella and
established it as one of the major language groups of the world. Caldwell coined
the term "Dravidian" from the Sanskrit drāvida, which
was used in a 7th century text to refer to the Tamil language of the
south of India.
Dravidian and Sanskrit have influenced each other in various ways. Some
earlier views in this interrelationship tended to view it as one-way from
Sanskrit to Dravidian as evidenced in the following statements: "While the
origins and initial development of Dravidian languages was independent of
Sanskrit, during later centuries, however, Dravidian
languages like Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil and Telugu have been greatly
influenced by Sanskrit in terms of
vocabulary, grammar and literary styles."
in some Brahmanic circles of Tamilnadu, and Tamil was given unduly
underestimated by a few Sanskrit-oriented scholars, the Tamil and Sanskrit
cultures were not generally in rivalry".
However more recent research has shown that Sanskrit has been influenced in
certain more fundamental ways than Dravidian languages have been by it: It is by
way of phonology and even more
significantly here via grammatical constructs. This has been the case from the
earliest language available (ca. 1200 B.C.) of Sanskrit: the Ṛg Vedic speech.
Basically, Dravidian languages show extensive lexical (vocabulary) borrowing,
but only a few traits of structural (either phonological or grammatical)
borrowing, from the Indo-Aryan tongues. On the other hand, Indo-Aryan shows
rather large-scale structural borrowing from Dravidian, but relatively few
A more serious influence on Vedic Sanskrit is the extensive grammatical
influence attested by the usage of the quotative marker iti and the
occurrence of gerunds of verbs, a grammatical feature not found even in the
Avestan language, a sister language of the Vedic Sanskrit. As Krishnamurti
states: "Besides, the Ṛg Veda has used the gerund, not found in Avestan,
with the same grammatical function as in Dravidian, as a non-finite verb for
'incomplete' action. Ṛg Vedic language also attests the use of iti as a
quotative clause complementizer. All these features are not a consequence of
simple borrowing but they indicate substratum influence (Kuiper 1991: ch
The Brahui population of Balochistan has been taken
by some as the linguistic equivalent of a relict population, perhaps
indicating that Dravidian languages were
formerly much more widespread and were supplanted by the incoming Indo-Aryan
Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 30 Jun.
Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju (2003) The Dravidian Languages Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge. ISBN
0-521-77111-0 at p. 40-41.
comparative grammar of the Dravidian, or, South-Indian family of languages,
London: Harrison, 1856.; Reprinted London, K. Paul, Trench, Trubner & co.,
ltd., 1913; rev. ed. by J.L. Wyatt and T. Ramakrishna Pillai, Madras, University
of Madras, 1961, reprint Asian Educational Services, 1998. ISBN
Historical and Comparative Linguistics. Routledge. ISBN